History Timeline / Chronology of Guatemala

Línea del Tiempo de la Historia / Cronología de Guatemala

100 CE - 1499 CE

Back to Index

Try our quizzes to test your knowledge of Guatemala

143 CELong Count dates on carving at La Mojarra, a non-Maya site in Mexico, early precursor of Mayan writing.Fechas de Cuenta Larga de la escultura en La Mojarra, un sitio no-maya en México, precursor de la escritura maya.
162 CELong Count date on statue in Tuxtla Mountains, Mexico, pre-Maya origins of writing.Fecha de Cuenta Larga en una estatua en la Sierra de los Tuxtlas, México, orígenes pre-mayas de la escritura.
250 CEThe classic period of Maya culture took place from about 250 CE to 900 CE.El período clásico de la cultura maya empezó a partir de 250 EC a 900 EC.
250 CEFrom 250-900 CE about a hundred thousand Mayans lived in the area of Tikal. It was abandoned after some 15 hundred years of continuous habitation.Desde 250-900 EC alrededor de cien mil Mayas vivían en el área de Tikal. Fue abandonada después de unos 1,500 años de habitación continua.
292 CEStela 29 at Tikal bear first Long Count date on a Mayan stela. Marks the beginning of the Classic Period and dynastic rule of Maya polities in the southern lowlands.
300 CE300-900 CE is called the Classic Period of the Maya.
300 CEThe city of Cancuen was established by this time. Ruins of the city were discovered in 1999.La ciudad de Cancuén fue establecido por estos tiempos. Las ruinas de la ciudad fueron descubiertas en 1999.
378 CEArrival of Siyaj K'ak' at Tikal, associated with introduction of art, clothing, and architecture from Teotihuacan.
378 CETikal saw the establishment of a new line of kings following its military victory over many cities of the Mayan Lowlands. The 1st king was Nuun Yax Ain (Green Crocodile) and he claimed descent from a Teotihuacan lord that scholars later dubbed Spear-Thrower Owl.Tikal vio el establecimiento de una nueva línea de reyes después de su victoria militar sobre muchas ciudades de las Tierras Bajas Mayas. El primer rey fue Nuun Yax Ain (Cocodrilo Verde) y que presumia descender de un señor Teotihuacano que los escolares despues dieron el apodo Lanzavenablos Buho.
411 CESiyaj Chan K'awil II ascends to throne at Tikal.
426 CEYax Kuk Mo, founder of the Copan dynasty, arrives at Copan from most likely, Tikal, introduces Teotihuacan styles of pottery, clothing, and architecture to Copan.
426 CEQuirigua's first dynastic ruler, Tok Casper, inaugurated under supervison of Copan's Yax Kuk Mo, demonstrating inclusion of Quirigua within Copan's hegemony.
431 CEInauguration of K'uk' B'alam I as first ruler of Palenque during the rule of Siyaj Chan K'awil II at Tikal suggests inception of Palenque dynasty may be related to arrival of Teotihuacanos in El Peten.
435 CEAccession of Palenque's second ruler, Casper.
437 CEDeath and burial of Yax Kuk Mo in Hunal (Temple 16) at Copan, accompanied by Teotihuacan style pots.
450 CEConstruction around this time of elaborately stuccoed and painted Temple Margarita at Copan as memorial shrine to Yax Kuk Mo.
487 ADAccession to throne of Palenque's third ruler, B'utz'aj Kak Chiik.
501 CEB'utz'aj Kak Chiik's brother, Ah kal Mo' Naab' I becomes Palenque's fourth ruler.
504 CEReign of Balam Nehn, seventh in the dynastic line of kings at Copan, responsible for major expansion of the Copan acropolis buildings.
529 CEK'an Joy Chitam I ascends to the throne at Palenque after a four year hiatus, apparently without a ruler of the city.
551 CERuler 9 ascends to the throne at Copan, recorded on the a stone on the Hieroglyphic Staircase.
553 CEInauguration of Tzik Balam at Copan, responsible for building the splendid Rosalila Temple, which was stuccoed and painted red, green, and yellow. The temple was dedicated to the founder of Copan, Yax Kuk Mo.
553 CETikal's 21st ruler, Wak Chan K'awil, sponsors the inauguration of Caracol ruler Yajaw Te' K'inich II.
562 CEWak Chan K'awil, leader of Tikal, is defeated in battle, likely by Calakmul. Tikal's power dissipates and the Classic Maya "hiatus" begins, during which no carved stelae are erected at Tikal.
562 CETikal was conquered probably by the Mayans of Calakmul. Calakmul is one of the largest of Mayan cities with more than 6,000 structures. It was the capital of a widespread hegemony of Lowland Maya kingdoms during the Late Classic from 600-900 CE.Tikal fue conquistada probablemente por los Mayas de Calakmul. Calakmul es una de las más grandes ciudades Mayas, con más de 6.000 estructuras. Fue la capital de una hegemonía generalizada de los reinos Mayas de las tierras bajas durante el Clásico Tardío 600 a 900 EC.
565 CEInauguration of Palenque ruler Ahkal Mo' Naab', grandson of earlier ruler by the same name.
572 CEInauguration of Palenque ruler Kan B'alam I.
578 CEButz' Chan becomes the eleventh ruler of Copan.
583 CELady Yohl Ik'nal, either sister or daughter of Kan B'alam I, inaugurated as Palenque's first queen.
595 CEAccession to the throne of the first great Tonina king, K'inich Hix Chapat.
599 CEDefeat and sacking of Palenque, likely by Calakmul, and recorded in the hieroglyphic stairway at Palenque.
600 CE600-900 CE is considered the Late Classic Period of the Maya.
600 CEThe Ceren site in El Salvador is buried by volcanic eruption around this date.
600 CEAround this time much of Quirigua is flooded and covered by river silt due to a hurricane or volcanic eruption resulting in reorientation of construction at the city.
604 CEDeath of Queen Yohl Ik'nal and accession to throne of Palenque of her son, Aj Ne' Ohl Mat.
611 CEPalenque defeated and sacked by Calakmul, under the leadership of Calakmul King Scroll Serpent.
615 CEAfter short rule by Lady Sak K'uk', her son, K'inich Janaab' ascends to the throne at Palenque. Lady Sak K'uk' was the granddaughter of Aj Ne' Ohl Mat or possibly another ruler.
626 CEPakal marries Lady Tz'akb'u Ajaw from Toktan.
628 CEK'ak' Na K'awil (Smoke Imix) ascends to the throne at Copan. He had many stelae erected and also the beautiful Chorcha temple, now under the Hieroglyphic Stairway, with an elaborate tomb containing pottery effigies of the Copan dynastic rulers.
640 CEDeath of Lady Sak K'uk'.
659 CETikal ruler Nuun Ujol Chaak is driven from Tikal by Calakmul and visits King Pacal at Palenque.
668 CEInauguration of Tonina Ruler 2.
672 CENuun Ujol Chaak of Tikal ousts a rival from Dos Pilas.
677 CENuun Ujol Chaak of Tikal is defeated by Calakmul.
679 CENuun Ujol Chaak of Tikal is defeated by Dos Pilas and Calakmul.
682 CEFrom 682-721 CE, Ah Cacaw (Lord of Cocoa) ruled over Tikal. His burial tomb was later found deep inside the 145-foot tall Temple of the Great Jaguar.Desde 682-721 EC, Ah Cacaw (Señor del Cacao) gobernó sobre Tikal. Su sepultura fue encontrada profundamente en el interior del Templo del Gran Jaguar de 145 pies de altura.
683 CEKing Pakal of Palenque dies and is buried in the Temple of the Inscriptions, a building completed by his son and successor, K'inich Kam B'alam II.
684 CEK'inich Kam B'alam II ascends to the throne of Palenque.
687 CETonina is raided by Palenque, perhaps including the capture of Tonina Ruler 2.
688 CEThird Tonina ruler, K'inich B'aaknal Chaak, inaugurated and begins campaign of battles against Palenque and other nearby cities.
692 CEAround this date, Ballcourt 1 at Tonina depicts six named prisoners from nearby cities reported as subservient to Palenque that likely refers to "star wars" campaign undertaken by K'inich Baaknal Chaak around 692 CE.
692 CEKam B'alam II dedicates the Temples of the Cross, Sun, and Foliated Cross at Palenque, a glorious display of Palenque's dynastic history and spiritual place in the Maya world.
692 CEMarks the end of the Classic Maya "hiatus" at Tikal, which began in 562 CE. During the hiatus, Tikal was dominated by Calakmul and no stelae were erected at Tikal.
695 CENuun Ujol Chaak's son, Jasaw Chan K'awil I, defeats Calakmul and returns Tikal to its former power. This is depicted on a doorway lintel at Tikal's Temple I.
695 CEWaxaklajuun Ub'aah K'awil, Copan's thirteenth ruler, ascends to the throne.
702 CEK'an Joy Chitam II, second of K'inich Janaab' Pakal's sons, ascends to the Palenque throne.
710 CEWaxaklajuun Ub'aah K'awil oversees construction of Esmeralda Temple, Copan's first hieroglyphic stairway over the Chorcha Temple.
May 23, 725 CEDate on Altar L at Quirigua. Mayan date, 12 Ahau 3 Xul.
Aug 20, 731 CEDate on Altar M at Quirigua. Mayan date, 4 Ahau 13 Yax.
740 CETah ak Chaan began a 50 year rule over the City of Cancuen. Tah ak Chaan comenzó una regla de 50 años sobre la Ciudad de Cancuén.
750 CEFrom 750 to 900 CE is considered the Terminal Classic Period of the Maya. This period marks the demise of the Mayan cities in the southern lowlands and the rise to prominence of the northern Maya lowland cities of Chichen Itza, Yaxuna, Sayil, Uxmal, and others.
May 7, 751 CEDate on Stela H at Quirigua. Mayan date, 2 Ahau 13 Tzec.
Apr 10, 756 CEDate on Stela J at Quirigua. Mayan date 8 Ahau 8 Zotz.
761 CEDate on Stela F at Quirigua.
765 CEFrom 765-790 CE the Mayan palace of Cancuen, one of the largest in Guatemala, was built by King Taj Chan Ahk.Desde 765-790 EC el palacio Maya de Cancuén, uno de los más grandes de Guatemala, fue construido por el Rey Taj Chan Ahk.
Feb 17, 766 CEDate on Stela D at Quirigua. Mayan date, 7 Ahau 8 Pop.
Jan 22, 771 CEDate on Stela E at Quirigua. Mayan date 13 Ahau 18 Cumhu.
Dec 27, 775 CEDate on Stela A and Stela C at Quirigua. Mayan date, 6 Ahau 13 Kayab.
Nov 30, 780 CEDate on Zoomorph B at Quirigua. Mayan date, 12 Ahau, 8 Pax.
783 CECommission of Tablet of the 96 Glyphs, arguably the finest Classic Maya calligraphy, commemorating K'uk' B'alam's first katun anniversary (20-year anniversary) of rulership at Palenque.
785 CEDeath of Quirigua's ruler K'ak' Tiliw, after a long reign during which he commissioned the construction of many public buildings and monuments in the city.
785 CEInauguration of Sky Mul at Quirigua.
Nov 4, 785 CEDate on Zoomorph G at Quirigua. Mayan date, 4 Ahau 3 Muan.
789 CETonina Ruler 8 undertakes battle with Pomoy, linked with Calakmul at the time, and captures Ucha'an Aj Chih, described in Tonina Monument 20 as the vassal of B'olon K'awiil, possibly the ruler of Calakmul.
Oct 9, 790 CEDate on Altar Zoomorph O at Quirigua. Mayan date, 11 Ahau 18 Mac.
795 CETaj Chan Ahk, the Mayan ruler of Cancuen, died.Taj Chan Ahk, el gobernante Maya de Cancuén, murió.
Sep 13, 795 CEDate on Altar Zoomorph P at Quirigua. Mayan date, 4 Ahau 13 Cej.
796 CEA 600-pound limestone altar was carved to honor a treaty in the Mayan city of Cancuen. It was uncovered in 2001 and soon stolen. It was retrieved in 2003.Un altar de piedra caliza de 600 libras fue esculpido en honor a un tratado en la ciudad Maya de Cancuén. Fue descubierto en 2001 y pronto robado. Fue recuperada en 2003.
799 CEPalenque's last known ruler, Wak Kimi Janaab' Pakal ascends to the throne. This is the last date recorded at the city and it is abandoned shortly thereafter.
800 CEAround this date, Quirigua's sixteenth and last ruler, Jade Sky, is inaugurated.
800 CEAbout this time, unidentified conquerors destroyed the Mayan palace at Cancuen and killed the members of the court. Archeologists in 2005 reported that King Maax, son of Taj Chan Ahk, was found buried in full regalia.Cerca de este tiempo, conquistadores no identificados destruyeron el palacio Maya de Cancuén y mataron a los miembros de la corte. Los arqueólogos en 2005 informaron que el Rey Maax, hijo de Taj Chan Ahk, fue encontrado enterrado con todas sus insignias reales.
Aug 17, 800 CEDate on Stela I at Quirigua. Mayan date 10 Ahau 8 Zac.
Jul 22, 805 CEDate on Stela K at Quirigua. Mayan date 3 Ahau 3 Yax.
810 CEThe last dated monument is erected at Quirigua. The city is abandoned shortly thereafter.
822 CEInauguration of Copan's seventeenth and last ruler, Ukit Took', noted on Altar L, which is never completed or erected due to the downfall of the city.
837 CEStela fragment at Tonina mentions Ruler 9, Uh Chapat.
869 CEThis is the last recorded date at Tikal. It is a dynastic reference to Tikal king Jasaw Chan K'awiil II, after which Tikal is abandoned.
889 CEThe last stela bearing a Maya Long Count date is erected at Caracol.
900 CEFrom 900 to 1250 CE is considered the Early Postclassic Period of the Maya, with the dominance of Chichen Itza.
904 CEMonument 158 is erected at Tonina by Ruler 10.
Jan 15, 909 CEMonument 101 at Tonina is the last stela bearing a Maya Long Count date erected in the southern Maya lowlands.
1200 CEA Mayan city in El Peten at the “El Pajaral” site is dated to the post-classic period from 1200 to 1330 CE. The ruins were found in 2000.Una ciudad Maya en el sitio de "El Pajaral" en El Petén esta fechada del período post-clásico de 1200 a 1330 EC. Las ruinas fueron encontradas en 2000.
1250 CEFall of Chichen Itza and the Late Postclassic rise to power of Mayapan, political fragmentation throughout the northern Maya lowlands, an increase in sea trade around the Yucatan and beyond.
1425From approximately 1425 to 1475 the Quiche and Cakchiquel peoples are ruled by Quikab the Great whose capitol is located at modern day Chichicastenango.Aproximadamente desde 1425 hasta 1475 los pueblos quichés y cakchiqueles se rigen por Quikab el Grande, cuya capital se encuentra en nuestros días Chichicastenango.


January 29, 2013
© 2010-2013 Phillip C. Landmeier